Soil : Glossary

Includes Soil Science Related Vocabulary:

* A horizon : topsoil, good for plants

* Actual Evapotranspiration: : total amount of water that moves from earth to atmosphere

* aggregate : groups of soil particles that bind to each other more strongly than to adjacent particles

* Arenosols : Sandy textured soils that lack any significant soil profile development or partially formed soil horizon, low in humus,

* available water: amount of water available to the plant, stored in the soil at field capacity minus the water that remains in soil at permanent wilting point

* B horizon : a layer of soil commonly referred as subsoil

* Calcisols : soils developed from calcium carbonate, occurs in dry areas where carbonate rich ground water comes near the surface

* Cambisols : brown soils, (common in oceanic zone of Europe covers 12%, can be exploited for agriculture subject)

* Chernozems : soil with a thick black surface layer rich in organic matter

* C horizon : broken up still rocky, refer to parent rock

* Clay : smallest size fraction in soil, secondary material due to chemical weathering, less than 0.002 mm in size

* Cryosols : ice affected soil common in arctic tundra

* E horizon : E for eluviated, horizon that has been leached of clay, iron, and aluminum oxides, occur between A and B horizon, in older soils

* Epiphytes : plants that grow harmlessly on other plants

* Field Capacity : amount of soil moisture held in soil after excess water has drained, takes place 2-3 days after rain or irrigation

* Histosols (peat soils) : Soils with oragnic materials where water accumulates and breakdown of vegetation under anaerobic condition

* Leptosols : shallow soils with minimum development, formed typically on hard rock or highly calcareous materials, include deeper soils on stony parents lacking fine earth

* NO3 = oxidised nitrogen that plants use readily, does not bind to soil easily

* O horizon : Soil layer with high percentage of organic matter, 3 distinct organic layers, Oi = one with leaves, pine needles, twigs, Oe = partially decomposed layer, Oa = dark layer of decomposed humus

* Permaforest : Soil layer beneath the surface that stays frozen year round

* Podzols : typical soil of coniferous, and boreal forests, formed where organic compounds are washed down into the lower layers of soil

* Podzoluvisols : intermediate type of soil between Cambisols and Podzols that can be found in cooler European areas between boreal and temperate zones

* Potential amount of Evapotranspiration : the amount of water that could be evaporated or transpired if unlimited water was available, PET is determined by solar radiation and wind speed

* R horizon : solid bed rock layer of large rocks at the bottom of soil

* sand : 0.02 to 2 mm, composed of quartz grains

* Silt = 0.02 to 0.002 mm

( The above content was taken from the FUTURELEARN course Citizen Science : From Soil to Sky : University of Dundee, 1.5 Glossary Section )


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