Earthworms of Nepal: A Brief Information


Earthworms
Earthworms are the commonly found, tube-shaped, red-coloured worms belonging to Phylum Annelida (Latin: little rings) with about 150 segments. The segmentations of earthworms are presented with the setae which is responsible for locomotion. The digestive system of earthworm consists of mouth, esophagus with glands, gizzard for grinding and intestine for absorption. The circulatory system of earthworm is closed with mainly three vessels aortic arches, dorsal blood vessels, and ventral blood vessels. The respiration of earthworm is through skin; kept moist through mucous. Earthworms are hermaphrodite in nature, but requires mate to exchange their sperm. The earthworms can be epigenic (living in surface), endogenic (below 10-30 cm of soil), or anecic (living in permanent vertical burrows).(Earthworms - Penn Arts & Sciences)



File:Earthworm segments Labeled Segments.jpg
Photo Source: Commons







Earthworms depend on organic materials for feeding materials and excreted contents has been the valuable nutrient for agriculture with beneficial result in biological, physical and chemical properties of the soil (Brady & Weil, 2009). In Nepal, comparison of earthworm species: Eisenia fetida, Perionyx excavatus and Lampito mauritti in organic wastes conversion has been conducted by (Tripathi, Dhakal, Sah, Sharma, & .Baral, 2016). Similarly, assessment of Eisena foetida (exotic) and Perionyx foveatus (local) has been evaluated in conversion of bio-wastes to compost suggesting the suitability of both the species in Kathmandu (Tamrakar, 2005). Furthermore, success results in production of vermicompost can be read in various news outlets suggesting the potential market benefits for producer (Shahi, 2014). To list the species, Eisenia foetide , Eudrillus eugineal , Perionyx excavatus and Lumbricus rubellus has been popular in Nepal for commercial production of compost in Nepal (Lamsal, 2011). Thus, the uses and importance of earthworms in Nepal has already been explored at most extent.

The growing interests in vermi composting favours in further understanding of biodiversity of nepalese earthworms. Biodiversity of earthworms of Nepal and their distribution region has unlikely been updated and there has been need for the survey for identification and study of the species for complete database of earthworms of Nepal. The identification of earthworms depend on the length, colour and any special markings in the surface of earthworms. Notably, (Panday, 2012) has listed 12 earthworm species commonly found in Nepal.

1. Alolobophora caliginosa
• Colour combination in the body
• The body from first segment to saddle part pale

2. Lumbricus spp.
• Red coloured or red violet,
3. Metaphire posthuma
4. Eutyphoeus napalensis
5. Octochaetona Beatrix
6. Megascolex spp.
7. E. pharpingianus
8. Perionyx macintoshii
9. Lampitto mauriti
10. E. lippus
11. Drawida nepalensis
12. Perionyx fabats

Further edits will be done in the section with any information, if possible.
Helpful resources for earthworm for further understanding of identification of earthworm have been listed:



References

  • Brady, N. C., & Weil, R. R. (2009). Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils.

  • Earthworms - Penn Arts & Sciences. (n.d.). Retrieved August 16, 2019, from https://www.sas.upenn.edu/~rlenet/Earthworms.html

  • Lamsal, Y. N. (2011). SURF AND TURF – Earthworm Cultivation for Biodiversity in Nepal. Retrieved August 2019, 2019, from Slowfood: https://www.slowfood.com/surf-and-turf-earthworm-cultivation-for-biodiversity-in-nepal/

  • Panday, R. (2012). Analysis of Toxic Metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) in Earthworm Species (Eisenia foetida, Perionyx. Central Department of Biotechnology.

  • Shahi, P. (2014). All hail the humble• earthworm. Retrieved August 16, 2016, from kathmandupost.com: https://kathmandupost.com/miscellaneous/2014/08/29/all-hail-the-humble-earthworm

  • Tamrakar, A. S. (2005). Utilization of Biowastes Through Vermitechnology. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 6 (2005) 69-71 , 69-71.

  • The potential market of vermicompost in Nepal. (n.d.). Retrieved August 16, 2019, from HamroKatha: https://www.hamrokatha.com/2018/10/04/6694.html

  • Tripathi, K., Dhakal, D., Sah, S., Sharma, M., & .Baral, 5. (2016). Assessment of Earthworm Species for Organic Waste Conversion to Vermicompost Yield and Quality. International Journal of Research , 03 (08), 272-276.


Bibliography

  • Prakash, O. (2017). Biodiversity of Earthworms and their Distribution in Different. IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy www.iosrphr.org , 7 (8), 01-09.

  • Verma, D., & Shweta. (2010). Earthworm Resources of Western Himalayan Region, India. International Journal of Soil Science , 6, 124-133.

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