Treaty of Sugauli and disputes (brief)

Background:

Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-16)
Treaty of Sugauli: 2nd Dec 1815 (Signed)
Ratified: 4 March 1816

Impact: Nepal lost about 1/3rd territory of Nepal to East Indian Company,
Jumau, Gadwal, to India
West of River: Sulej, Kankada of HimalChal Pradesh

Treaty of Sugauli revision: 1857, Major part of Terai to Nepal,

Fresh dispute:

State of Jammu and Kashmir: divided into two Union Territories: Political Map of India redrawn: 2nd Nov. 2019, New Political Map of India

Kalapani 

  • India's Uttarakhand, Pithoragh district according to India,
  • Nepal's Darchalu District's area

Kalapani Region and its dispute:

Kalapani is valley, route to Kailash - Mansarovo (3600 m).
1962 Indo-China War: ITBP (Indo - Tibetan Border Police) controlled area after the war. Now
under Indian administration as part of Pithoragarh district in the Uttarakhand state.Kalapani region: the origin of Mahakali river, western boundary between Nepal and India.
The source of the river was undefined. And the river changes its path fluctuating the boundaries between the countries.

During  colonial period, the British surveyor redrew the map defining the different sources of the river.

Nepal says:
6th Nov. 2019:
disputed area,
final agreement not defined yet,
bilateral talks

India says:
believes in bilateral talks,
in existing mechanism, map was redrawn.

India's concern:
tri-junction; altitude strategic advantage for India.


Nepal Fumes Over Kalapani in New Indian Road Map; 'Accurate,' Says MEA
Source: thewire.in
Notes based after watching Wifistudy upsc (link)

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