APA (7th Ed.) BASICS

WHY APA?

guidelines, as the rule

helps finding, focusing the information 

helps avoiding plagiarism,


~~~~ BIAS FREE LANGUAGE

===> avoiding irrelevant details, 

===> non gender terms,

===> no false hierarchies,

===> preferred labels and language,


~~~~ PURPOSE and DESCRIPTION

knowing what methods are applied, ask for the help,

 * bibme.org, 

 * citationmachine,net 

 * easybib.com


=======================================================


TITLE PAGE:

page number: top right

4 doubled space lines from top margins - title and authors name, affiliation, course name, instructor name, date


RUNNING HEAD:

header: in all capitals (top left)


ABSTRACT:

word "Abstract" centered, 

a paragraph (250 words), 

no indentation needed at the beginning of the paragraph, 


Keywords: (the "keywords" indented and italicized, followed by colon)


====================================================


BODY OF THE PAPER:

Title is sentence case capitalized, centered and bold,

paragraphs are indented,


Levels of heading can up to 5.

Level 1 centered and bold. 

Level 2: left aligned and bold

Level 3: italicized and bold, left aligned

Level 4: Bold and period. paragraph starts after the title

Level 5: Similar to Level 4


IN-TEXT CITATIONS

author date formats: 

~ year after the author name, or before the end of the sentence, or both the last name and the year at the end of the sentence,

~ specific page as "p." or "pp." or "para."

multiple authors: 

two authors: use their last name

more authors: "et al.,"

multiple sources:

more sources: alphabetically and semi-colon to be used

more than one work  from same author:year separated by commas

unknown author: 

(organization name, date)

("title of the article", date)

(title italicized if large part from book, date)

two sources, same last name

name initials to be used


<<<PARAPHRASING>>>

putting into in one's own words, citations needed

just not changing words


quotes

author names, year, page up to 40 words

over 40 words: BLOCK quotes: indented


Tables

numbers needed, not indented, bold,

title of the table: italic

Note can be added


Figures (visual information)

figures numbers needed, 

figures' title: italic


===================================================

REFERENCES:

alphabetical, hanging indentation needed

hyperlink to be removed


Book:

author, date. title. source

authors last name, initial. (year). title of the book. source.


anthology, collection: (Ed.) added

    for single piece/chapter within collections: author. date. title of the small work. In (Ed.), title, page. source


DOI: 

authors. (year). title is in sentence case, journal name in  title case, volume(issue), page range. DOI added at last (no period at last)

~ if no DOI not found, url from where the article was found can be added (no period at last)


web

author, initials. (date). Title of the web page sentence case italics. web url

organization. (date). Title in sentence case. web address


e-book

author, initials. (date). Title Italicized and Title Cased. Source. url

audiobook:  +

After the Tile. (narratorn name, Narr.) [Audiobook]


 non written sources: different person to be listed accordingly,


film:

name, (Director). (date). Sentence case title [Film]. Studio Name. (period at end)


YouTube

Creators name. (date). Sentence case title [Video]. YouTube. url (no period at end)


information missing:

organization as author

title of the piece, as sentence case, organization name, url

no date: (n.d.)

no title: [content described]. source. link


======================================================

IMPORTANT LINKS:


बढी पढिएका सामग्रीहरुः

About Me

My photo
Learner, Loves/Learns agronomy, remote sensing, gis, other interests in writing poetry, learning languages, literature, learning the guitar, (+ve person)